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Common Core State Standards: Expanding Reading Proficiency - Alignment by grade level

Reading Anchor Standard 1Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.  In the Play In A Book process, students are read aloud either a fairy tale (K) or a chapter from the PIAB book (1st – 8th).  A discussion of the text follows.  At intervals during this discussion, students break out of the whole group to converse in pairs and small groups.

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Grade

Reading Literature

Play In A Book Alignment

K

With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details

in a text.

After reading a fairy tale, K students discuss key details to be used for performance.

1

Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

After reading each chapter of The Three City Goats Gruff, 1st grade students discuss key details of the text.

2

Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why and how

to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

After reading each chapter of The Three City Goats Gruff or The Brave Little Costumer, 2nd grade students discuss key details of the text including who, what, where, when, why, and how.

3

Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for answers.

After reading each chapter of The Brave Little Costumer or Gretel & Hansel, 3rd grade students refer to their books as they discuss key details of the text.

4

Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

After reading each chapter of Gretel & Hansel, 4th grade students refer to their books when discussing facts and inferences from the text.

5

Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh, 5th grade students quote from their books when discussing facts and inferences from the text.

6

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh or Macbeth, 6th grade students refer to specific lines of text when discussing facts and drawing inferences.

7

Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh or Macbeth, 7th grade students refer to specific lines of text when discussing facts and drawing inferences.

8

Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh or Macbeth, 8th grade students refer to specific lines of text when discussing facts and drawing inferences.

Reading Anchor Standard 2:  Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their developmentsummarize the key supporting details and ideas.  In the Play In A Book process, students act out a story through movement (K) or through a script (1st – 8th).  At the end of each session, students reflect in their workbooks.

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Grade

Reading Literature

Play In A Book Alignment

K

With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.

After reading a fairy tale, K students retell the story through movement on stage. They also retell the story through a drawing post-performance.

1

Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson.

After reading each chapter of The Three City Goats Gruff, 1st grade students, retell the story through acting out a script. Additionally, students write about the lesson or message of the story in workbooks.

2

Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and

determine their central message, lesson, or moral.

After reading each chapter of The Three City Goats Gruff or The Brave Little Costumer, 2nd grade students recount the story through acting out a script and then write about the message, lesson, or moral in workbooks.

3

Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text.

After reading each chapter of The Brave Little Costumer or Gretel & Hansel, 3rd grade students recount the story through acting out a script and then write about the message, lesson, or moral in workbooks, citing key details from the text.

4

Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text;

summarize the text.

After reading each chapter of Gretel & Hansel, 4th grade students summarize the chapter and determine a theme in their workbooks.

5

Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh, in workbooks 5th grade students summarize the chapter and determine the theme and how that them impacts the central characters.

6

Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh or Macbeth, in workbooks 6th grade students provide an objective summary of the chapter and describe the theme, citing examples from the text.

7

Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh or Macbeth, in workbooks 7th grade students provide an objective summary of the chapter and describe the theme, citing examples from the text. This activity is repeated for each chapter and for the text as a whole.

8

Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh or Macbeth, in workbooks 8th grade students provide an objective summary of the chapter and describe the theme, citing examples from the text. This activity is repeated for each chapter and for the text as a whole.

Reading Anchor Standard 3:  Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.  In the Play In A Book process, students are read aloud either a fairy tale (K) or a chapter from the PIAB book (1st – 8th).  A discussion of the text follows.  At intervals during this discussion, students break out of the whole group to converse in pairs and small groups.  Additionally, students act out the text through movement (K) or through scripts (1st – 8th) and reflect on their work through drawing (K) or workbooks (1st – 8th).

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Grade

Reading Literature

Play In A Book Alignment

K

With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

After reading a fairy tale, K students demonstrate characters, setting, and major events through performance.

1

Describe characters, setting, and major events in a story, using key details.

After reading each chapter of The Three City Goats Gruff, 1st grade students discuss characters, setting, and major events using key details.

2

Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.

After reading each chapter of The Three City Goats Gruff or The Brave Little Costumer, 2nd grade students analyze a character in their workbooks.

3

Describe characters in a story (e.g. their traits, motivations or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence events.

After reading each chapter of The Brave Little Costumer or Gretel & Hansel, 3rd grade students analyze each main character in their workbook.

4

Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g. a character’s thought, words, or actions).

After reading each chapter of Gretel & Hansel, 4th grade students analyze each main character in their workbook, citing specific examples from the text.

5

Compare and contrast two or more characters, setting, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g. how characters interact).

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh, 5th grade students compare and contrast main characters, settings, and events citing specific details from the text in their workbooks.

6

Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh or Macbeth, 6th grade students track character changes and growth based on specific examples from the text in their workbooks.

7

Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g. how

setting shapes characters or plot).

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh or Macbeth, 7th grade students analyze all main characters in their workbooks.

8

Analyze how complex characters (e.g. those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh or Macbeth, 8th grade students track characters, their motivations, and relationship to the plot or theme in their workbooks.

Reading Anchor Standard 4:  Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.  In the Play In A Book process, students learn a set of vocabulary words prior to reading a story through discussion and an acting game.  Additional word work is done in workbooks at the close of each session.

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Grade

Reading Literature

Play In A Book Alignment

K

Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.

After reading a fairy tale, K students ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.

1

Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.

After reading each chapter of The Three City Goats Gruff, 1st grade students identify words or phrase that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses through discussion and through a vocabulary acting game.

2

Describe how words and phrases (e.g. regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.

After reading each chapter of The Three City Goats Gruff or The Brave Little Costumer, 2nd grade students describe how words and phrases supply rhythm and meaning in a story through discussion and through a vocabulary acting game.

3

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.

After reading each chapter of The Brave Little Costumer or Gretel & Hansel, 3rd grade students determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language through discussion and through a vocabulary acting game.

4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g. Herculean)

After reading each chapter of Gretel & Hansel, 4th grade students determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text through discussion and through a vocabulary acting game.

5

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh, 5th grade students determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes through discussion, through a vocabulary acting game, and in workbooks.

6

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh, 6th grade students determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text, including figurative and connotative meaning and they analyze the impact of word choice on tone of story through discussion, through a vocabulary acting game, and in workbooks.

7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g. alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh or Macbeth, 7th grade students determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text, including figurative and connotative meaning and they analyze the impact of alliteration on a part of the text through discussion, through a vocabulary acting game, and in workbooks.

8

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g. how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh or Macbeth, 8th grade students determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text, including figurative and connotative meaning and they analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone through discussion, through a vocabulary acting game, and in workbooks.

 

Reading Anchor Standard 5:  Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger parts of the text (e.g. chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.  The Play In A Book texts are made of a story told in chapters (prose) and plays told in acts & scenes (drama).  Additionally, each play incorporates elements of verse (poetry).  Each session of the 30 session programs includes discussion of text and workbook assignments.

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Grade

Reading Literature

Play In A Book Alignment

K

Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems).

During the 30 session PIAB program, K students read nursery rhymes, storybooks, and scripts.

1

Explain major differences between books that ell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types.

During the 30 session PIAB program, 1st grade students read nursery rhymes, storybooks, chapter books, and scripts.

2

Describe the overall structure of a story, including how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.

After reading each chapter of The Three City Goats Gruff or The Brave Little Costumer, 2nd grade students break down each chapter by beginning, middle, and end in their workbooks.

3

Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each part builds on earlier sections.

After reading each chapter of The Brave Little Costumer or Gretel & Hansel, 3rd grade students break down chapters and scene, describing how each part builds on the last in their workbooks.

4

Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g. verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g. cast of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text.

During the 30 session PIAB program, 4th grade students work from both a story (prose) and a play (drama) and refer to structural elements of drama (cast of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing in their workbooks or speaking about the text in discussions.

5

Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.

During the 30 session PIAB program, 5th grade students work from both a story (prose) and a play (drama) and analyze the structure of each through discussion and workbooks.

6

Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of theme, setting, or plot.

During the 30 session PIAB program, 6th grade students work from both a story (prose) and a play (drama) and analyze the structure of each and how that structure relates to theme, setting, or plot through discussion and workbooks.

7

Analyze how a drama’s or poem’s form or structure (e.g. soliloquy, sonnet) contribute to its meaning.

During the 30 session PIAB program, 7th grade students work from both a story (prose) and a play (drama) and analyze the structure of each and how that structure contribute to meaning through discussion and workbooks.

8

Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style.

During the 30 session PIAB program, 8th grade students work from both a story (prose) and a play (drama) and analyze the structure of each and compare and contrast them through discussion and workbooks.

Reading Anchor Standard 6:  Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.  In the Play In A Book process, students act out a story through movement (K) or through a script (1st – 8th).  At the end of each session, students reflect in their workbooks.

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Grade

Reading Literature

Play In A Book Alignment

K

With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story.

After reading a fairy tale, K students name the author and illustrator of each story and understand their roles in telling the story.

1

Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text.

After reading each chapter of The Three City Goats Gruff, 1st grade students identify who is telling the story at various points in the text through discussion.

2

Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud.

After reading each chapter of The Three City Goats Gruff or The Brave Little Costumer, 2nd grade students act out scripts with multiple characters and write from each main character’s pov in their workbooks.

3

Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters.

After reading each chapter of The Brave Little Costumer or Gretel & Hansel, 3rd grade students distinguish their own pov from narrator or characters through discussion, acting, and in workbooks.

4

Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.

After reading each chapter of Gretel & Hansel, 4th grade students compare and contrast first and third person narratives by writing first person narratives in workbooks.

5

Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how

events are described.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh, 5th grade students explore writing from each character’s pov in their workbooks.

6

Explain how an author develops the points of view of the narrator or speaker in a text.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh, 6th grade students explore writing from each character’s pov in their workbooks and describe their own process.

7

Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different character’s or narrators in a text.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh or Macbeth, 7th grade students explore writing from each character’s pov and contrast them in their workbooks.

8

Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or reader (e.g. created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh or Macbeth, 8th grade students explore writing from each character’s pov and analyze how they are used to create effects like suspense and humor in their workbooks.

Reading Anchor Standard 7:  Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.  In the Play In A Book process, students are read aloud either a fairy tale (K) or a chapter from the PIAB book (1st – 8th).  A discussion of the text follows.  At intervals during this discussion, students break out of the whole group to converse in pairs and small groups.  Additionally, students act out the text through movement (K) or through scripts (1st – 8th) and reflect on their work through drawing (K) or workbooks (1st – 8th).

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Grade

Reading Literature

Play In A Book Alignment

K

With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g. what moment in a story an illustration depicts).

After reading a fairy tale, K students discuss and recreate illustrations through tableaus using their body.

1

Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, settings, or events.

After reading each chapter of The Three City Goats Gruff, 1st grade students use illustrations and details in the chapter to describe characters, setting, and events through discussion, through acting, and through workbooks.

2

Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.

After reading each chapter of The Three City Goats Gruff or The Brave Little Costumer, 2nd grade students use information gained from illustrations and words to demonstrate understanding of characters, setting, and plot through discussion, through acting, and through workbooks.

3

Explain how specific aspects of a text’s illustrations contribute what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g. create mood, emphasize aspects of character or setting).

After reading each chapter of The Brave Little Costumer or Gretel & Hansel, 3rd grade students explain how specific scenes of the play create mood and emphasize aspects of character and setting.

4

Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.

After reading each chapter of Gretel & Hansel, 4th grade students act the story out and discuss how their choices are influenced by the texts.

5

Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g. graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem).

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh, 5th grade students act out the text and analyze how their staging contributes to meaning, tone, and beauty of the story.

6

Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including contrasting what they “see” and “hear” when reading the text to what they perceive when they listen or watch.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh, 6th grade students act out a scene and compare and contrast what they see and hear when they read the story vs. what they see and hear when they watch the scene through discussion and workbooks.

7

Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem, to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g. lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film).

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh or Macbeth, 7th grade students compare and contrast the story version to various film versions watched throughout through discussion and workbooks.

8

Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors.

After reading each chapter of Gilgamesh or Macbeth, 8th grade students analyze how the story and play are similar and how they differ through discussion and workbooks.

Reading Anchor Standard 8: Analyze how two or texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the author takes. Play In A Book materials are classic stories retold and re-imagined with the contemporary youth audience in mind.  Throughout the PIAB process, students are exposed to other versions of the same story (K-4) or to source material for a text (5-8).

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Grade

Reading Literature

Play In A Book Alignment

K

With prompting and support, compare and contrast the experiences and adventures of characters in familiar stories.

After reading multiple versions of a fairy tale, K students compare and contrast the stories through discussion.

1

Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories.

After reading The Three City Goats Gruff and other versions of the same story, 1st grade students compare and contrast versions through discussion and in workbooks.

2

Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g. Cinderella stories) by different authors of from different cultures.

After reading The Three City Goats Gruff or The Brave Little Costumer and other versions of the same stories, 2nd grade students compare and contrast versions through discussion and in workbooks.

3

Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g. in books from a series).

After reading The Brave Little Costumer or Gretel & Hansel, 3rd grade students compare and contrast these titles to other PIAB titles previously read through discussion and in workbooks.

4

Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g. opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g. quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.

After reading Gretel & Hansel and other versions of the same story from different cultures, 4th grade students compare and contrast themes and events through discussion and in workbooks.

5

Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g. mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics.

After reading Gilgamesh, 5th grade students compare and contrast the story to others in the approach to theme and topic through discussion and in workbooks.

6

Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g. stories and poems, historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.

After reading Gilgamesh, 6th grade students compare and contrast the story to others in the approach to theme and topic through discussion and in workbooks.

7

Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history.

After reading Gilgamesh or Macbeth, 7th grade students compare and contrast the story to the historical account in the book’s foreword.

8

Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new.

After reading Gilgamesh or Macbeth, 8th grade students analyze how the works draw from other stories, including describing how it is rendered new through discussion and in workbooks.

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